Echoes and Reflections supports study in United States and World History, English, Holocaust Studies, Fine Arts, Character Education, and the Social Sciences, and meets or reinforces U.S. national standards in Social Studies, English/Language Arts, and Viewing and Media Literacy. Echoes and Reflections also supports a number of state standards, including Florida, Alabama, Tennessee, Georgia, South Carolina, and Colorado.
- Lesson One: Studying the HolocaustLesson One: Studying the Holocaust ( Hide Details )
This lesson provides an opportunity for students to discuss the value and importance of studying human catastrophes, in general, and the Holocaust, in particular. The lesson also provides an opportunity for students to consider the importance of examining both primary and secondary source materials, including visual history testimony, when studying historical events and to review vocabulary that is used throughout Echoes and Reflections.
- Lesson Two: AntisemitismLesson Two: Antisemitism ( Hide Details )
This lesson provides an opportunity for students to learn about the origins of antisemitism. Students will also learn about pre-war Jewish life in Germany, antisemitism in Nazi ideology and its similarities and differences from classic and modern forms of antisemitism. Students will also examine propaganda methods that were employed by the Nazi government to exploit antisemitic attitudes among the German people and to create an atmosphere of terror.
- Lesson Three: Nazi GermanyLesson Three: Nazi Germany ( Hide Details )
The purpose of this lesson is for students to learn about the Weimar Republic's fragile democracy between 1918 and 1933 and to examine historical events that allowed for the complete breakdown of democracy in Germany between 1933 and 1939. Students will investigate primary source materials in order to understand how legislation, terror, and propaganda isolated German Jewry from German society. Students will also consider the role and responsibility of the individual in interrupting hate and the escalation of violence.
- Lesson Four: The GhettosLesson Four: The Ghettos ( Hide Details )
This lesson provides students with an opportunity to learn about the ghettos established throughout Nazi Europe and to study primary sources that were rescued from the Lodz ghetto in Poland. Students will recognize that the ghettos were another step in the continuum of Nazi racial policies that humiliated and limited Jewish existence and caused many to lose their sense of human dignity.
- Lesson Five: The “Final Solution”Lesson Five: The “Final Solution” ( Hide Details )
In this lesson, students learn about one of humanity’s darkest chapters—the mobile killing squads, the Nazi extermination camps, and the “Final Solution of the Jewish Question.” In addition, students have an opportunity to explore the question of how human beings could commit mass murder.
- Lesson Six: Jewish ResistanceLesson Six: Jewish Resistance ( Hide Details )
This lesson provides students with an overview of Jewish resistance efforts during the Holocaust. An opportunity is provided for students to learn about the risks of resisting Nazi domination and the means, scope, and intensity of resistance efforts. These efforts ranged from cultural and spiritual resistance in the ghettos to armed resistance of partisans and ghetto and camp prisoners.
- Lesson Seven: Rescuers and Non-Jewish ResistanceLesson Seven: Rescuers and Non-Jewish Resistance ( Hide Details )
The purpose of this lesson is to provide students with an understanding and overview of resistance and rescue efforts by non-Jews that took place during the Holocaust. The lesson provides an opportunity for students to learn about the types of rescue that occurred in Nazi-occupied Europe.
- Lesson Eight: Survivors and LiberatorsLesson Eight: Survivors and Liberators ( Hide Details )
This lesson provides students with an understanding of the political, legal, social, and emotional status of the Jewish survivors. This lesson also examines the role of the liberators following the defeat of the Nazis at the end of World War II.
- Lesson Nine: Perpetrators, Collaborators, and BystandersLesson Nine: Perpetrators, Collaborators, and Bystanders ( Hide Details )
This lesson provides an opportunity for students to examine critically the complex issue of relative guilt within the context of the Nazi occupation of Europe. Students will also learn about the war crimes trials following World War II and consider the responsibility of the free world to provide a safe haven for refugees attempting to escape Europe.
- Lesson Ten: The ChildrenLesson Ten: The Children ( Hide Details )
The purpose of this lesson is for students to understand the effects of the Holocaust on its most innocent victims—children—since targeting babies and children was an important step in the attempt by the Nazis to erase the Jews and their future. Students will also research post-Holocaust genocides and analyze children’s rights violations. In addition, students are provided an opportunity to develop a position on whether an event the magnitude of the Holocaust could happen again and to consider the role and responsibility of the individual in seeing that it does not.