Curriculum Updates

We are constantly updating Echoes and Reflections so that it reflects the most accurate information available. These updates include, but are not limited to, revised facts and figures based on recent Holocaust research, changes to Web site addresses, and general corrections. When you acquired your copy of Echoes and Reflections will determine which, if any, of these updates apply to your version of the curriculum. We suggest checking each section below to see if there is anything that you need to update. Page numbers indicate where this information can be located. In some cases, reprints of the curriculum with revisions caused some page numbers to change; therefore, we have included all those pages where the material may appear.

  • IntroductionIntroduction ( Hide This Section )

    Page 11 (13): Change Web site address for information on the guidelines adapted from the Education Working Group of the Task Force on International Cooperation on Holocaust Education, Remembrance and Research to www.holocausttaskforce.org.

    Page 18(20): Change Web site address in NOTE at bottom of page to www.cs4online.org/holocaust/.

  • Lesson One: Studying the HolocaustLesson One: Studying the Holocaust ( Hide This Section )

    Page 24 (26, 30): Bullet three, sentence four: …a description that hardly captures the devastation and demoralization faced by Jews across Germany, Austria, and in areas of the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia on November 9/10, 1938.

    Page 29 (31, 35): Paragraph five, last sentence: Almost 100 Jews were killed and hundreds more injured; approximately 7,000 Jewish businesses and homes were damaged and looted; 1,400 synagogues were burned; cemeteries and schools were vandalized; and 30,000 Jews were arrested and sent to concentration camps.

    Page 39 (41, 45): Student Handout – Letter by Margarete Drexler to the Gestapo: replace with PDF

    Page 41 (43, 47): Student Handout – Description of the Riot in Dinslaken: the author of this journal/diary entry was Yitzhak S. Herz.

    Page 47(49): Notes for Teachers: Materials published by the USC Shoah Foundation Institute are available at www.usc.edu/vhi

  • Lesson Two: AntisemitismLesson Two: Antisemitism ( Hide This Section )

    Page 83(85): Notes for Teachers: Materials published by the USC Shoah Foundation Institute are available at www.usc.edu/vhi.

    Transparency Master: Nazi Propaganda (transparency #2), bottom of page: A caricature from a book entitled The Poisonous Mushroom.

    Transparency Master: Nazi Propaganda (transparency #4), bottom of page: change Web site address to http://www1.yadvashem.org/yv/en/education/lesson_plans/antisemitism_january27.asp

  • Lesson Three: Nazi GermanyLesson Three: Nazi Germany ( Hide This Section )

    Page 93(95): NOTE: For an additional activity using the “Pyramid of Hate,” go to www.usc.edu/vhi.

    Page 97(99): Opening paragraph, sentence two: The new republic emerged following a revolution, resulting in the abdication of Wilhelm II in November 1918.

    Page 97(99): Item B: Germany had to pay reparations to compensate the victorious powers.

    Page 107(109): Opening paragraph, sentence three: Before the outbreak of the war, political and economic factors, as well as public opinion both inside and outside Germany influenced the evolution of Nazi anti-Jewish laws and measures.

    Page 108(110): 1936: Hitler temporarily relaxed the antisemitic propaganda and other measures against Jews in order to avoid criticism by foreign visitors attending the summer Olympic Games in Berlin.

    Page 108(110): 1938, bullet three: All Jews had to add the names “Israel” and “Sarah” to their identification papers, and passports were marked with the red letter J, for Jude (Jew).

    Page 108(110): 1938, bullet five: Kristallnacht Pogrom (Night of Broken Glass): approximately 1,400 synagogues were burned and 7,000 stores owned by Jews and hundreds of homes were damaged and looted.

    Page 109(111): Sentence two: This number represented approximately 30 percent of the total Jewish population.

    Page 117(119): Notes for Teachers: Materials published by the USC Shoah Foundation Institute are available at www.usc.edu/vhi.

  • Lesson Four: The GhettosLesson Four: The Ghettos ( Hide This Section )

    Page 120(122): Bullet one, sentence two: The ghetto period is often referred to as the “bypass death,” for more than 80,000 Jews died in the Warsaw ghetto alone.

    Page 124 (126, 130): Instruction seven, sentence two: the Nazis established approximately 1,100 ghettos throughout Eastern and Central Europe.

    Page 133(135): Paragraph one, last sentence: Many thousands of Poles and Jews were murdered in the first months of the occupation.

    Page 139(141): First paragraph, first sentence: Lodz is the second largest city in Poland, known for its textile industry.

    Page 139 (141, 145): Student Handout – The Lodz Ghetto: paragraph two, sentence two: As early as May 1940, the ghetto was established, and 170,000 Jews were incarcerated in it.

    Page 139 (141, 145): Student Handout – The Lodz Ghetto: paragraph six, last sentence: Despite Rumkowski’s efforts to obtain increased food rations from the Germans, the daily portions did not suffice, and more than 44,000 Jews starved to death.

    Page 139 (141, 145): Student Handout – The Lodz Ghetto: column two, information in insert: By August 1942 some 204,800 people had passed through the Lodz ghetto.

    Page 139 (141, 145): Student Handout – The Lodz Ghetto: column two, information in insert: By August 1942 some 204,800 people had passed through the Lodz ghetto.

    Page 140(142): Last sentence on page: The writer of the diary, Zalman Loewenthal, and Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski all perished in Auschwitz.

    Page 140 (142, 146): Student Handout – The Lodz Ghetto: paragraph one, add sentence: By the end of 1942, approximately 70,000 Jews were sent to Chelmno.

    Page 157(159): Notes for Teachers: Materials published by the USC Shoah Foundation Institute are available at www.usc.edu/vhi.

  • Lesson Five: The “Final Solution”Lesson Five: The “Final Solution” ( Hide This Section )

    Page 179(181): Introduction, sentence three: Historians note that on July 31, 1941, Hermann Goering, Hitler's second in command, sent an official order to Reinhard Heydrich, the head of the security branch of the SS, to authorize a “Final Solution of the Jewish Question.”

    Transparency Master: Auschwitz-Birkenau, Poland (transparency #2 and #4): May 26, 1944.*

    Page 193/4(195/6): Student Handout - The First Ones: replace with PDF.

    Page 195(197): Notes for Teachers: Materials published by the USC Shoah Foundation Institute are available at www.usc.edu/vhi.

    Page 202 (2008 edition only; not included in earlier printings): Surviving Auschwitz: Five Personal Journeys: available at http://college.usc.edu/vhi/survivingauschwitz/vhfmain.htm.

  • Lesson Six: Jewish ResistanceLesson Six: Jewish Resistance ( Hide This Section )

    Page 207(209): Instruction five, list of names: Marek Edelman

    Page 217(219): Second testimony: From the words of Marek Edelman, a Warsaw ghetto fighter

    Page 218(220): End Notes, entry two: Preceding God - An Interview with Marek Edelman of the Warsaw Ghetto Fighters.

    Page 223(225): Notes for Teachers: Materials published by the USC Shoah Foundation Institute are available at www.usc.edu/vhi.

  • Lesson Seven: Rescuers and Non-Jewish ResistanceLesson Seven: Rescuers and Non-Jewish Resistance ( Hide This Section )

    Page 237(239): Paragraph five, last sentence: Among the most famous of these diplomats were Raoul Wallenberg, Chiune-Sempe Sugihara, and Sousa Mendes.

    Page 239 (241, 245): Student Handout – Those Who Dared to Rescue: paragraph one, first sentence: Yad Vashem, up until the present, has conferred the honor of “Righteous Among the Nations” upon approximately 23,000 individuals.

    Page 245(247, 251): Student Handout - Yad Vashem Criteria: replace with PDF.

    Page 249(251): Transparency Master - Righteous Among the Nations: replace with PDF.

    Page 251(253): Notes for Teachers: Materials published by the USC Shoah Foundation Institute are available at www.usc.edu/vhi.

  • Lesson Eight: Survivors and LiberatorsLesson Eight: Survivors and Liberators ( Hide This Section )

    Page 281(283): Notes for Teachers: Materials published by the USC Shoah Foundation Institute are available at www.usc.edu/vhi.

  • Lesson Nine: Perpetrators, Collaborators, and BystandersLesson Nine: Perpetrators, Collaborators, and Bystanders ( Hide This Section )

    Page 291 (293, 297): About the MS St. Louis: sentence one: The MS St. Louis, a German ship, left Hamburg, Germany for Cuba on May 13, 1939, with 937 passengers, most of them Jewish refugees.

    Page 291 (293): About the MS St. Louis: last sentence: Many of these refugees later came under the net of German occupation and were murdered by the Nazis.

    Page 303(305): Paragraph three, first sentence: After the German invasion of France in 1940, Marshal Philippe Petain signed a ceasefire with Germany.

    Page 304(306): Paragraph four, sentence five: At Babi Yar near Kiev in Ukraine, close to 34,000 Jews were murdered by German Einsatzgruppen with the aid of Ukrainian killing squads in only two days.

    Page 305(307): Heading for first section: The Nuremberg Trial, 1945/6

    Page 306(308): Ernst Kaltenbrunner: Chief of Reich Main Security Office whose departments included the Gestapo, Sipo, and SD.

    Page 307(309): Konstantin von Neurath

    Page 307(309): Franz von Papen: German statesman and diplomat.

    Page 327(329): Notes for Teachers: Materials published by the USC Shoah Foundation Institute are available at www.usc.edu/vhi.

  • Lesson Ten: The ChildrenLesson Ten: The Children ( Hide This Section )

    Page 330(332): First sentence: The Nazi belief that they needed to murder babies and children was central to their racial ideology.

    Page 338(340): Additional Strategies and Procedures #3: As a class, read and discuss current and past reports from The State of the World's Children on the UNICEF Web site www.unicef.org/sowc.

    Page 353(355): Notes for Teachers: Materials published by the USC Shoah Foundation Institute are available at www.usc.edu/vhi.

  • AppendicesAppendices ( Hide This Section )

    Page 369(371): Notes for Teachers: Materials published by the USC Shoah Foundation Institute are available at www.usc.edu/vhi.

    Page 377 (2008 edition only; not included in earlier printings): General Holocaust Resources: Segments for the Classroom: available at http://college.usc.edu/vhi/segmentsfortheclassroom/.

  • GlossaryGlossary ( Hide This Section )

    Page 377 (379, 383): Genocide, revised definition: The United Nations defines genocide as any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group, including killing members of the group; causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.

    Page 381 (383, 387): “Righteous Among the Nations”: last sentence: Approximately 23,000 “Righteous Among the Nations” have been recognized so far.

    Page 381 (383, 387): Add Social Darwinism: A theory promoted by philosopher Herbert Spencer, arising in the late nineteenth century that the laws of evolution, which scientist Charles Darwin had observed in nature, also apply to society. Social Darwinists argued that social progress resulted from conflicts in which the fittest or best adapted individuals, or entire societies, would prevail. It gave rise to the slogan “survival of the fittest.” The theory was used to promote racial superiority.

    Page 382 (384, 388): Visual History Testimony: first sentence: As defined by the USC Shoah Foundation Institute, visual history testimony is a videotaped account of one person’s experiences of life before, during, and after the Holocaust.

View Sample Lesson and Testimony

The curriculum contain[s] many valuable resources and offer[s] a great deal of flexibility to our teachers. Our middle school teachers look forward to incorporating aspects of the program in their classes… We know that these resources will better prepare our students to be the productive and responsible citizens we wish them to become during these turbulent times.

Coordinator for Social Studies, Collier County, FL


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